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INDIA AND UNITED NATIONS

PEACEKEEPING AND PEACEBUILDING

 

India stands solidly committed to assist the UN in the maintenance of international peace and security with a proud history of UN peacekeeping dating back to its inception in the 1950s. India has contributed nearly 180,000 troops, the largest number from any country, participated in more than 44 missions and 156 Indian peacekeepers have made the supreme sacrifice while serving in UN missions. India has also provided and continues to provide eminent Force Commanders for UN Missions.

 

In 2014 India is the second largest troop contributor [TCC] with 8,123 personnel deployed with 12 UN Peacekeeping Missions of which 991 are police personnel, including the first Female Formed Police Unit under the UN. The high standards of performance maintained consistently by the Indian troops and policemen deployed on UN Missions under challenging circumstances have won them high regard worldwide .

 

India is of the view that the international community must grasp the rapid changes that are underway in the nature and role of contemporary peacekeeping operations. The Security Council’s mandates to UN peacekeeping operations need to be rooted in ground realities and correlated with the resources provided for the peacekeeping operation. It is critical that troop and police contributing countries should be fully involved at all stages and in all aspects of mission planning.There should be greater financial and Human Resources for peace building in post conflict societies where UNPKO’s have been mandated.


India’s unique combination of being the largest democracy in the world with a strong tradition of respect for rule of law and the successful experience in nation building makes it particularly relevant in the context of twenty-first century peacebuilding. India was reappointed to the Organizational Committee of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in December 2010, for a third 2-year term. India is strongly supportive of nationally-led plans for peace consolidation, while arguing for a constructive approach and a ‘lighter touch’ by the PBC in extending advice, support and in extending its involvement. India has also been contributing to the UN Peacebuilding Fund.

   

INDIA’s CONTRIBUTION TO UN PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS

 

General Information

1.  Since 1948, UN Peacekeepers have undertaken 68 Field missions. As on today there are approximately 97,729 personnel serving on 16 peace operations led by UNDPKO, in four continents. This represents a nine fold increase since 1999. A total of 120 countries have contributed military and police personnel to UN peacekeeping. Currently more than 83,936 of those serving are troops and military observers and about 11,929 are police personnel.

Indian Contribution

2.   India has been the largest troop contributor to UN missions since inception. So far India has taken part in 44 Peacekeeping missions with a total contribution exceeding 1,80,000 troops and a significant number of police personnel having been deployed.

3.  India has so far, provided one Military Advisor (Lt Gen R K Mehta), one Police Adviser (Ms Kiran Bedi), one Deputy Military Adviser (Lt Gen Abhijit Guha), 14 Force Commanders and numerous Police Commissioners in various UN Missions. Indian Army has also contributed lady officers as Military Observers and Staff Officers apart from them forming part of Medical Units being deployed in UN Missions. The first all women contingent in peacekeeping mission, a Formed Police Unit from India, was deployed in 2007 to the UN Operation in Liberia(UNMIL).  

4.   Many gallant Indian soldiers have laid their life to bring peace and harmony to the world. While serving under the blue flag, 156 Indian soldiers have, so far made the supreme sacrifice.

 

 

 

 

5.   Past Missions:   The following have been the missions in which India has contributed since 1950.

  (a) Korea(1950-54): Paramedical Unit comprising 17 officers, 9 JCOs and   300 other ranks was deployed to facilitate withdrawal of sick and wounded   in Korea. Lt Gen K S Thimmaya was appointed as the Chairman of the   Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC) set up by UN. India also   provided a custodian force under Maj Gen SPP Thorat comprising 231   officers, 203 JCOs and 5696 other ranks.

  (b) Indo-China(1954-70): India provided an Infantry Battalion and   supporting staff for control of Indo-China comprising three states of   Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Tasks included monitoring, ceasefire and   repatriation of prisoners of war, among others. A total of 970 officers, 140   JCOs and 6157 other ranks were provided during the period from 1954-  1970.

  (c) Middle East (1956-67): United Nations Emergency Force(UNEF), where   for first time armed troop contingents were deployed. India’s contribution   was an infantry battalion and other support elements. Over a period of 11 years, 393 officers, 409 JCOs and 12383 other ranks took part in the   operations.

  (d) Congo(1960-64)(ONUC): Two infantry Brigades comprising of 467   officers, 401 JCOs and 11354 participated and conducted operations. A   flight of six Canberra bomber aircraft of the IAF also participated in ops. 39

 

 

personnel of the Indian contingent laid down their lives. Capt GS Salaria was awarded posthumously the Paramvir Chakra for action in Katanga, Southern Congo.

(e) Cambodia(1992-1993) (UNTAC):  Was set up to supervise ceasefire, disarm combatants, repatriate refugees and monitor conduct of free and fair elections. A total of 1373 all   ranks participated from Indian Army.

 

 

 

(f) Mozambique(1992-94) (ONUMOZ): Two Engineer companies HQ company, logistics company, staff officers and military observers were provided. In all 1083 all ranks participated.

  (g) Somalia(1993-94) (UNITAF & UNOSOM II): The Indian Navy and Indian   Army took active part in UN Operations. Indian Army deployed a Brigade   Group comprising of 5000 all ranks and the navy deployed four battleships.

  (h) Rwanda(1994-96) (UNAMIR): An Infantry Battalion group, a signal company, and engineer company, staff officers and Military Observers were   provided. Total of 956 all ranks took   part.

(i) Angola(1989-1999) (UNAVEM):   Besides providing a Deputy Force   Commander, an Infantry Battalion   group and an engineer company   comprising a total of 1014 all ranks.   India contributed 10 MILOBS for   UNAVEM-1, 25 for UNAVEM-II And   20 MILOBS, 37 SOs, and 30 Senior   NCOs for UNAVEM-III.

(j) Sierra Leone(1999-2001) (UNAMSIL): Two Infantry Battalion groups, two   engineer companies, Quick reaction company, Attack helicopter unit,   medical unit and Logistic support in addition to sector HQ and Force   Headquarters staff.

(k) Ethiopia-Eritrea (2006-08) (UNMEE): Indian contribution comprised one   infantry battalion group, one construction engineer company and one force   reserve company, apart from staffing at various HQs and MILOBs.

6.   Current Missions- Indian Contribution: The Indian Armed Forces are presently undertaking the following UN Missions (Out of total 15 Missions currently underway)

(a) Lebanon (UNIFIL) (Since Dec 1998): One infantry battalion group, and   Level II Hospital comprising   650 all ranks and 23 staff   officers, till date. The current   situation in the Mission is   tense and volatile due to the   crises in Syria.

(b)Congo(MONUC/   MONUSCO)  (Since January   2005): Extended Chapter VII   mandate. Augmented   Infantry Brigade Group (four   infantry battalions) with level III Hospital. Army   aviation contingent with utility helicopters. A large   number of MILOBs &   SOs have also been contributed. In addition two Formed Police Units   (FPU) ex BSF and ITBP have also been deployed since 2009. Lt Gen Chander   Prakash of India , was, till recently the Force Commander in MONUSCO.   MONUSCO’s new mandate vide Resolution 2098   (2013) has been   implemented with an Intervention Brigade provided by AU, deployed   under   UN Command. The FARDC along with the support of MONUSCO were able   to destroy the M-23 Rebel Group, however the situation continues to be   volatile and uncertain due to the presence of other armed groups.

(c) Sudan(UNMIS/UNMISS) (Since April 2005): Two Infantry Battalion groups, sector HQ, Engineer company, signal company, Level-II Hospital   and large number of MILOBS and SOs. We had a Deputy Force   Commander  (Brig Asit Mistry) and  recently a Deputy Police Commissioner  (Mr Sanjay Kundu) there. The latest political developments in the Mission led to widespread inter-tribe violence and large   displacement of locals. In the ensuing intra state conflict two Indian Peacekeepers lost their lives while ensuring Protection of Civilians. The current situation continues to be highly volatile and sporadic clashes between the tribes are being reported regularly.

  (d) Golan Heights (UNDOF) (Since February 2006): A Logistics battalion with   190 personnel has been deployed to look after the logistics security of   UNDOF. Maj Gen IS Singha is the Force Commander since July 2012.   Current crisis due to Syrian conflict has impacted the mission and exchange   of fire between the Syrian Forces and the armed groups have put the   Peacekeepers in grave danger.

(e) Ivory Coast(UNOCI) (Since April 2004): The mission is supported by   Indian SOs and MILOBs since inception.

  (f) Haiti (MINUSTAH) (Since December 1997): Apart from three Indian FPUs   there, i.e from CISF, CRPF and Assam Rifles, which have been hugely   successful, the mission has been supported by Indian Army staff officers   since inception.

  (g) Liberia (UNMIL) (Since April 2007): India has been contributing both   male and female FPUs ex CRPF / RAF in Liberia. The Female FPU has   especially become a inspiration for the women of the host nation and have   become trendsetters for other such female FPUs across the Globe. Till   recently, Mr Gautam Sawang of India was the Police Commissioner there.

 

 

 

   

Roll of Honour

7.  Indian Army in UN Missions: So far the following gallantry awards have been won by our gallant soldiers in UN Missions: 

 

361742 - Peacekeeping - MONUC - 19_03_2009 - 16

 

 

•  Param Vir Chakra  01
•  Mahavir Chakra  06
•  Kirti Chakra  02
•  Vir Chakra  20
•  Shaurya Chakra   09
•  Yudh Seva Medal   04
•  Sena Medal   32 

 

 

Capt Gurbachan Singh Salaria,PVC

 

 

 

 


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